Posted in Biology, Cell Biology

Differentiated Cells

You should have looked at the typical structures of plant and animal cells. The human body is made up of a couple of hundred different types of cells. You will need to give examples of specialised cells (differentiated cells), cells adapted for a specific job.

Below shows different specialised cells and their basic adaptations.

Sperm Cell


  • Long tail for swimming

  • Lots of mitochondria for energy to swim

  • Enzymes in its head for getting into the female cell

Nerve Cell

  • Nerve CellLong connections at each end
  • Can carry electrical signals


Red Blood Cell


  • No nucleus to increase surface area
  • Concave shape to increase surface area
  • Contains haemoglobin (gives blood its red colour)


Root Hair CellRoot Hair Cell

  • Found in the roots of a plant
  • Large surface area to increase absorption of water and mineral ions


Leaf Palisade Cell

Palaside Cell

  • Found at the top of the leaf
  • Lots of chloroplasts for photosynthesis